Gender gap in the average income of the employed population
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INE adaptation of the ILO Decent Work Indicator measures the relative difference between average income of men and women. It uses the difference between the average income of employed women and employed men, and expresses this difference as a percentage of the average income of employed men.

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Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI)

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October 2020

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National Employment Survey (ENE). Suitable informant

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Methodological Document ESI

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October-December quarter of each year

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Household survey

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Annual

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Reference month: month previous to the reference week of the ENE (the week, Monday to Sunday, before the survey)

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Sampling of the ENE has two stages and is probabilistic. The two stages refer to the First Stage Sampling Unit (UPE), which is the block (urban) or section (rural), and the Second Stage Sampling Unit (USE), which is the private occupied dwelling. Probabilistic means that the selection of the UPE in each stratum is proportional to the size of the unit in relation to the number of dwellings (USE) and that the probability of selection of the USE is equal for all dwellings within the UPE.

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Percentage

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Income from principal occupation (ING_T_P)

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Educational level (ISCED) grouped into 7 categories: No studies/Early childhood education, Primary, Secondary, Short-cycle tertiary, Bachelor or equivalent, Postgraduate, Not elsewhere classified. Six age brackets: 15-24 years, 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years, 55-64 years, 65 years and over. Categories ICSE: Public sector employees, Private sector employees. Normal working hours in 5 categories: 1-30 hours, 31-43 hours, 44-45 hours, 46 hours and more, No information.

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The category are divided as per the International Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities CIIU.CL 2012 (Revision 4, Chilean adaptation) according to the Classification of National Economic Activities for Sociodemographic Surveys (CAENES). International Classification of Status in Employment (CISE_93). International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88, 1 digit). International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08, 1 digit). International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED_97).

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[(Average income from the principal occupation of employed women - Average income from the principal occupation of employed men) / Average income from the principal occupation of employed men] * 100

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For the main income variables, a variant of the conditional-means procedure is used to search for and select donors. Qualitative variables (demand levels based on characteristics of income recipients) are mixed with geographical variables (areas of estimation). Failure or refusal to provide information considered for the purposes of this imputation has three a variables: 1. Labour income from the principal occupation (Income from Wages and Salaries, and Income from Self-employment) 2. Income from Retirement or Pension 3. Imputed Rent. For the variable of number of hours actually worked in the reference month, a substitution methodology is used, that is, the imputation of the hours actually worked is replaced with data reported by the same informant regarding hours normally worked.

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Income from occupation: all income from current principal occupation that was received in the in the reference period of the survey. Gender gap: refers to the difference between the situation of women and of men in regard to a variable of interest, which is expressed with a focus on women (with the understanding that the structural inequality affects women and that it needs to be demonstrated). As a result, a negative gap indicates that women are at a disadvantage compared to men while a positive gap indicates that women have a better position.

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According to the sample design, the calculation of the expansion factor is made up of two parts that account for each of the selection stages, that is, a weighting that accounts for the selection of first-stage units (blocks and sections ); and another, which accounts for the selection of second-stage units (dwellings) and is calculated as the inverse of the probabilities of selection of said sampling units. The resulting factor (formed by both selection stages) is adjusted by information annexed to the survey, which accounts for the population stocks obtained from the Population and Housing Census of 2017. This adjustment corresponds to the calibration by the Raking method.

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Gender gap in the average income of the employed populationAbstract

INE adaptation of the ILO Decent Work Indicator measures the relative difference between average income of men and women. It uses the difference between the average income of employed women and employed men, and expresses this difference as a percentage of the average income of employed men.

Contact person/organisation

Department of Labour Statistics - National Statistics Institute. Contract: Subdepartment of Citizen Information.

Citizen Informationmailto:ine@ine.cl
Data source(s) used

Household survey

Name of collection/source

Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI)

Direct source

National Employment Survey (ENE). Suitable informant

Source Periodicity

October-December quarter of each year

Source metadata

Methodological Document ESI

Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI) Websitehttp://www.ine.cl/estadisticas/ingresos-y-gastos/esi?len=en
Date last input received

October 2020

Unit of measure used

Percentage

Variables collected

Income from principal occupation (ING_T_P)

Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI) Websitehttp://www.ine.cl/estadisticas/ingresos-y-gastos/esi?len=en
Sampling

Sampling of the ENE has two stages and is probabilistic. The two stages refer to the First Stage Sampling Unit (UPE), which is the block (urban) or section (rural), and the Second Stage Sampling Unit (USE), which is the private occupied dwelling. Probabilistic means that the selection of the UPE in each stratum is proportional to the size of the unit in relation to the number of dwellings (USE) and that the probability of selection of the USE is equal for all dwellings within the UPE.

Periodicity

Annual

Reference period

Reference month: month previous to the reference week of the ENE (the week, Monday to Sunday, before the survey)

Link to Release calendar

Information found on the INE.Stat platform is updated 48 hours after official publication.

Statistical Agendahttp://www.ine.cl/inicio/agendaestadistica?len=en
Statistical population

Employed population

Geographic coverage

The population living in Chile, excluding collective housing. Also excluded, because of operational problems, are areas of difficult access (ADA) and blocks with seven or fewer dwellings.

Sector coverage

All economic sectors used in the classification CIIU4.cl 2012, according to CAENES are covered. It should be noted that, for the Supplementary Survey of Income, the branch of economic activity refers to the sector of the economic unit, company, or business where the employed person works.

Classifier of economic activitieshttp://www.ine.cl/docs/default-source/laborales/ene/publicaciones/clasificador-de-actividades-econ%C3%B3micas-nacional-para-encuestas-sociodemogr%C3%A1ficas-(caenes).pdf?sfvrsn=4?len=en
Population coverage

The entire population aged 15 and over, belonging to households of private dwellings selected in the chosen blocks (or sections) of the sampling frame (excluding collective households).

Key statistical concept

Income from occupation: all income from current principal occupation that was received in the in the reference period of the survey. Gender gap: refers to the difference between the situation of women and of men in regard to a variable of interest, which is expressed with a focus on women (with the understanding that the structural inequality affects women and that it needs to be demonstrated). As a result, a negative gap indicates that women are at a disadvantage compared to men while a positive gap indicates that women have a better position.

Classification(s) used

The category are divided as per the International Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities CIIU.CL 2012 (Revision 4, Chilean adaptation) according to the Classification of National Economic Activities for Sociodemographic Surveys (CAENES). International Classification of Status in Employment (CISE_93). International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88, 1 digit). International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08, 1 digit). International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED_97).

Aggregation & consolidation

Educational level (ISCED) grouped into 7 categories: No studies/Early childhood education, Primary, Secondary, Short-cycle tertiary, Bachelor or equivalent, Postgraduate, Not elsewhere classified. Six age brackets: 15-24 years, 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years, 55-64 years, 65 years and over. Categories ICSE: Public sector employees, Private sector employees. Normal working hours in 5 categories: 1-30 hours, 31-43 hours, 44-45 hours, 46 hours and more, No information.

Estimation

[(Average income from the principal occupation of employed women - Average income from the principal occupation of employed men) / Average income from the principal occupation of employed men] * 100

Imputation

For the main income variables, a variant of the conditional-means procedure is used to search for and select donors. Qualitative variables (demand levels based on characteristics of income recipients) are mixed with geographical variables (areas of estimation). Failure or refusal to provide information considered for the purposes of this imputation has three a variables: 1. Labour income from the principal occupation (Income from Wages and Salaries, and Income from Self-employment) 2. Income from Retirement or Pension 3. Imputed Rent. For the variable of number of hours actually worked in the reference month, a substitution methodology is used, that is, the imputation of the hours actually worked is replaced with data reported by the same informant regarding hours normally worked.

Weights

According to the sample design, the calculation of the expansion factor is made up of two parts that account for each of the selection stages, that is, a weighting that accounts for the selection of first-stage units (blocks and sections ); and another, which accounts for the selection of second-stage units (dwellings) and is calculated as the inverse of the probabilities of selection of said sampling units. The resulting factor (formed by both selection stages) is adjusted by information annexed to the survey, which accounts for the population stocks obtained from the Population and Housing Census of 2017. This adjustment corresponds to the calibration by the Raking method.

Dissemination format(s)

Dissemination has three formats: 1. Institutional webpage for the publication of official tabulations (2010-2017), databases, and related documents. 2. PDF documents related to the analysis of specific profiles of income. 3. Micro-databases in SPSS and CSV format.

Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI) Websitehttp://www.ine.cl/estadisticas/ingresos-y-gastos/esi?len=en
Recommended uses and limitations

It is recommended as a reference to use the criteria established in the ESI methodological document.

Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI) Websitehttp://www.ine.cl/estadisticas/ingresos-y-gastos/esi?len=en
Quality comments

Supplementary Survey of Income (ESI) Websitehttp://www.ine.cl/estadisticas/ingresos-y-gastos/esi?len=enOther comments

The proposal of INE inverts the order of the elements of the numerator in such way that a unfavorable gap for women gives a negative result.